The demand for water resources has increased over time as the world’s population has grown. And, as we all know, water is required at every stage of manufacturing and production processes worldwide. The amount of water required varies depending on numerous factors, including industry and capacity. According to data, industries in various geographies consume between 20 and 60% of (usable) water. To solve the current water scarcity, industry is building more wastewater treatment plants than ever before.
Water treatment procedures include physicochemical pre-treatment, biological treatment, membrane filtration, electrodialysis, evaporation, and crystallization. These are classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments, and the decision (which treatment to take) is based on a number of criteria, including financial considerations and local legislation.
In some circumstances, companies are investigating minimal liquid discharge (MLD) or zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technologies to further treat and concentrate wastewater. Several companies recover rich minerals during the concentration / crystallization process, making investment appealing.
After membrane filtration, the water is further treated by evaporation to recover the greatest amount of water from the reject. Multi-effect Evaporators (MEE) or Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) evaporator systems tend to foul because of salts and sediments deposition, resulting in a loss in heat transfer efficiency and an increase in operational expense.
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